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Beach volleyball grew in popularity in the United States during the Great Depression in the s as it was an inexpensive activity. In the first tournament to offer a prize was held in Los Angeles , California.
It awarded the best teams with a case of Pepsi. It failed, but a professional tournament was held in France for 30, French francs.
In the meantime, beach volleyball gained popularity: Kennedy was seen attending a match. Dennis Hare went on to write the first book on the subject of beach volleyball: The Art of Beach Volleyball.
The winners, the first "world champions", were Greg Lee and Jim Menges. Volleyball magazine staged the event the next year at the same location, this time sponsored by Schlitz Light Beer.
Jose Cuervo signed on as sponsor and the prize purse. The event was successful and Cuervo funded an expansion the next year to three events. In following years the tour expanded nationally and was renamed the Pro Beach Volleyball Tour.
It consisted of five events in California and tournaments in Florida, Colorado, and Chicago. At the end of the year, however, Event Concepts was forced out of the sport by a players' strike at the World Championship and the Association of Volleyball Professionals AVP was founded.
At the professional level, the sport remained fairly obscure until the s when beach volleyball experienced a surge in popularity with high-profile players such as Sinjin Smith , Randy Stoklos , and Karch Kiraly.
Kiraly won an Olympic gold medal in beach volleyball in its first Olympic appearance in , adding that to the two Olympic golds he won as part of the USA men's indoor team ,  and has won titles.
It was won by Sinjin Smith and Randy Stoklos. Despite its increased popularity in the s and s, American beach volleyball suffered setbacks.
In , the American women's professional tour — the WPVA — and the American professional men's tour — the AVP — filed for bankruptcy, plagued by problems as a player-run organization.
After filing for bankruptcy again in , the AVP re-emerged under new leadership in as the main professional beach volleyball tour in the United States.
Beach volleyball has become a global sport, with international competition organized by the FIVB. Brazil and the USA are dominant, with 20 of the 30 Olympic medals awarded to date between them, and 16 of the 20 gold and silver medals.
But the sport's popularity has spread to the rest of the world as well. Beach volleyball is played on a rectangular sand court.
The sand should be as leveled as possible and free of potential hazards such as rocks that could cause injuries to players.
The court is divided into equal halves by a net that is 8. The top of the net is 2. FIVB regulations state that the ball must be spherical and made of flexible and water resistant material, such that it is appropriate for outdoor conditions.
A team is composed exclusively of two players, who must always be in play and who cannot be subjected to any substitutions or replacement. At the moment the ball is hit by the server, each team must be within its own court with the exception of the server , but there are no determined positions on the court, such that no positional faults can be committed.
A team scores a point when: The team that won the point serves for the next point. A set is won by the first team to reach 21 points 15 points in the deciding final set with a two-point advantage.
The first team to win two sets wins the match. A fault is committed when a referee judges that a team has made a playing action that violates the rules.
When a team commits a fault, the opposing team receives a point and gains the right to serve. If both teams commit a fault simultaneously, the point is replayed.
Beach volleyball is fundamentally similar to indoor volleyball. However, there are several differences between the two games that affect players' strategies, gameplay and techniques.
The main differences in the rules of beach and indoor volleyball for international competitions governed by the FIVB include: The teams start on opposite sides of the net.
One team is designated the serving team and opposing team is the receiving team. A coin toss is conducted by the referee before the warm-ups to determine which team serves first and which sides of the court the teams start on for the first two sets.
If a third deciding set is needed, another coin toss will be conducted prior to the third set. The service order decided at the coin toss before a set is maintained throughout the set.
For each point, a player from the serving team initiates the serve by tossing the ball into the air and attempting to hit the ball so it passes over the net on a course such that it will land in the opposing team's court.
The opposing team must use a combination of no more than three contacts with the ball to return the ball to the opponent's side of the net. The team with possession of the ball that is trying to attack the ball as described is said to be on offense.
The team on defense attempts to prevent the attacking team from directing the ball into their court: If the ball is hit around, above, or through the block, the defensive player positioned behind the blocker attempts to control the ball with a dig usually a forearm pass.
After a successful dig, the team transitions to offense. The game continues in this manner, rallying back and forth, until the ball touches the court within the boundaries or until a fault is committed.
Teams switch ends of the court after every 7 points set 1 and 2 and 5 points set 3 played. When the total points are 21 adding the score of both teams there is a technical time-out.
Each team may request one time-out per set. While there are no set positions, competitive players will generally have specialized defensive roles: Some competitive teams have no specializations, with the two players taking turns blocking and playing defense.
This allows them to conserve energy since the demand for energy on the sand is higher. Competitive players also tend to specialize in playing on either the right- or left-side of the court.
This allows for greater consistency in receiving serve and shot selection. Left- handed players generally prefer to play on the right-side while right-handed players generally prefer to play on the left-side, as it is easier to spike a ball that has not passed across the line of one's body.
The ball may touch any part of the body except during the serve, when only the hand or arm may make contact , but must be hit, not caught or thrown. During a hit, a player may only make contact with the ball one time.
When two players from the same team contact the ball simultaneously, it is counted as two hits, and either player may make the next contact.
When two players from opposing teams contact the ball simultaneously over the net, in what is known as a joust , the team whose side the ball ends up on is entitled to another three contacts.
The setters usually set from the middle front or right front position. The team will therefore have two front-row attackers at all times.
In the international 4—2, the setters set from the right front position. The international 4—2 translates more easily into other forms of offense. The setters line up opposite each other in the rotation.
The typical lineup has two outside hitters. By aligning like positions opposite themselves in the rotation, there will always be one of each position in the front and back rows.
After service, the players in the front row move into their assigned positions, so that the setter is always in middle front. Alternatively, the setter moves into the right front and has both a middle and an outside attacker; the disadvantage here lies in the lack of an offside hitter, allowing one of the other team's blockers to "cheat in" on a middle block.
The clear disadvantage to this offensive formation is that there are only two attackers, leaving a team with fewer offensive weapons.
Another aspect is to see the setter as an attacking force, albeit a weakened force, because when the setter is in the front court they are able to 'tip' or 'dump', so when the ball is close to the net on the second touch, the setter may opt to hit the ball over with one hand.
This means that the blocker who would otherwise not have to block the setter is engaged and may allow one of the hitters to have an easier attack.
In the 6—2 formation, a player always comes forward from the back row to set. The three front row players are all in attacking positions.
Thus, all six players act as hitters at one time or another, while two can act as setters. So the 6—2 formation is actually a 4—2 system, but the back-row setter penetrates to set.
The 6—2 lineup thus requires two setters, who line up opposite to each other in the rotation. In addition to the setters, a typical lineup will have two middle hitters and two outside hitters.
After service, the players in the front row move into their assigned positions. The advantage of the 6—2 is that there are always three front-row hitters available, maximizing the offensive possibilities.
However, not only does the 6—2 require a team to possess two people capable of performing the highly specialized role of setter, it also requires both of those players to be effective offensive hitters when not in the setter position.
At the international level, only the Cuban National Women's Team employs this kind of formation. It is also used by NCAA teams in Division III men's play and women's play in all divisions, partially due to the variant rules used which allow more substitutions per set than the 6 allowed in the standard rules—12 in matches involving two Division III men's teams  and 15 for all women's play.
The 5—1 formation has only one player who assumes setting responsibilities regardless of his or her position in the rotation.
The team will therefore have three front-row attackers when the setter is in the back row, and only two when the setter is in the front row, for a total of five possible attackers.
The player opposite the setter in a 5—1 rotation is called the opposite hitter. In general, opposite hitters do not pass; they stand behind their teammates when the opponent is serving.
The opposite hitter may be used as a third attack option back-row attack when the setter is in the front row: Normally the opposite hitter is the most technically skilled hitter of the team.
Back-row attacks generally come from the back-right position, known as zone 1, but are increasingly performed from back-center in high-level play.
The big advantage of this system is that the setter always has 3 hitters to vary sets with. If the setter does this well, the opponent's middle blocker may not have enough time to block with the outside blocker, increasing the chance for the attacking team to make a point.
There is another advantage, the same as that of a 4—2 formation: This too can confuse the opponent's blocking players: A good setter knows this and thus won't only jump to dump or to set for a quick hit, but when setting outside as well to confuse the opponent.
The 5—1 offense is actually a mix of 6—2 and 4—2: In , a new volleyball union was formed in response to dissatisfaction with the organization and structure of professional beach volleyball tournaments.
Another controversy within the sport is the issue of the inclusion of transgender players. There are many variations on the basic rules of volleyball.
By far the most popular of these is beach volleyball , which is played on sand with two people per team, and rivals the main sport in popularity.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Volleyball disambiguation. This article needs attention from an expert in Volleyball.
The specific problem is: WikiProject Volleyball may be able to help recruit an expert. Volleyball at the Summer Olympics. New England Historical Society.
Retrieved 2 January Putting his mind to the challenge, Morgan examined the rules of sports such as baseball, basketball, handball and badminton.
Archived from the original on January 27, Northern California Volleyball Association. Archived from the original on July 1, Archived from the original on Archived from the original on September 19, Garden City, New York: Garden City Publishing Company, Inc.
Illustration Plate following p. Nudism Comes to America. Way of Life and Social Structure". The playing court is [ The ball shall be spherical The server must hit the ball within 8 seconds after the first referee whistles for service.
National Collegiate Athletic Association. Pettit, Terry; Potts, Kerri Archived from the original on February 24, Cambridge University Volleyball Club.
Retrieved August 16, Substitutions — Limitations" PDF. Women's Volleyball and Rules and Interpretations.
Retrieved August 26, Men's professional volleyball leagues. Puerto Rico Mexico Dominican Republic. South American Club Championship. Women's professional volleyball leagues.
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