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Us pre election

us pre election

U.S. Preelection Campaign - Dr. Josef Braml (DGAP): Wie Politaußenseiter den Was wir in Europa verlieren, weil in den USA das Geld regiert - meint Josef. Zur Wahl stehen unter anderen der Gouverneur, der US-Senator und Mitglieder der bundesstaatlichen Legislative. Die Primary (Vorwahl) ist ein parteiinternes Verfahren der großen Parteien in den Vereinigten. Contrary to some media reporting, our latest research finds that cyber activity during the U.S. presidential election does not appear to.

Herbert Hoover previously served as the Secretary of Commerce. Everyone else served in elected public office before becoming president, such as being Vice President, a member of the United States Congress , or a state or territorial governor.

Fourteen Presidents also served as vice president. Bush began their first term after winning an election. The remaining nine began their first term as president according to the presidential line of succession after the intra-term death or resignation of their predecessor.

Truman , and Lyndon B. Arthur , and Gerald Ford were not. Ford's accession to the presidency is unique in American history in that he became vice president through the process prescribed by the Twenty-fifth Amendment rather than by winning an election, thus making him the only U.

Sixteen presidents had previously served in the U. Senate, including four of the five who served between and However, only three were incumbent senators at the time they were elected president Warren G.

Harding in , John F. Kennedy in , and Barack Obama in Eighteen presidents had earlier served in the House of Representatives. However, only one was a sitting representative when elected to presidency James A.

Bush have been governors of a state. Geographically, these presidents were from either very large states Reagan from California , Bush from Texas or from a state south of the Mason—Dixon line and east of Texas Carter from Georgia , Clinton from Arkansas.

In all, sixteen presidents have been former governors, including seven who were incumbent governors at the time of their election to the presidency.

The most common job experience, occupation or profession of U. Twenty-two presidents were also in the military. Eight presidents had served as Cabinet Secretaries, with five of the six Presidents who served between and having held the office of U.

Advances in technology and media have also affected presidential campaigns. The invention of both radio and television have given way to the reliance of national political advertisements across those methods of communication.

National advertisements such as Lyndon B. Bush 's commercial " Revolving Door " became major factors in those respective elections.

In , George H. Bush's promise of " Read my lips: Since the development of the internet in the mids, Internet activism has also become an invaluable component of presidential campaigns, especially since The internet was first used in the presidential elections, but primarily as a brochure for the candidate online.

In , both candidates George W. Bush and Al Gore created, maintained and updated their campaign website. But it was not until the presidential election cycle was the potential value of the internet seen.

By the summer of , ten people competing in the presidential election had developed campaign websites. His website played a significant role in his overall campaign strategy.

In , the internet became a grassroots and a voice of the people tool—a way for the users to connect with each other and with the campaign, like Dean's website had done in All of the major candidates had a website and utilized social networking like Facebook and MySpace.

The popularity of a candidate could be measured by the number of "friends" on these sites as well as on websites like Hitwise, which listed the number of hits all of the presidential candidate's websites had each week.

Internet channels such as YouTube were used by candidates to share speeches and ads for free. This also served as a forum for users to attack other candidates by uploading videos of gaffes.

This represents 73 percent of adult internet users. The study also showed that 22 percent of adult internet users used social network sites or Twitter to get information about and discuss the elections and 26 percent of all adults used cell phones to learn about or participate in campaigns.

E-campaigning as it has come to be called, is subject to very little regulation. On March 26, , the Federal Election Commission voted unanimously to "not regulate political communication on the Internet, including emails, blogs and the creating of Web sites" [25] This decision made only paid political ads placed on websites subject to campaign finance limitations.

The presidential election process is controversial, with critics arguing that it is inherently undemocratic, and discourages voter participation and turnout in many areas of the country.

Because of the staggered nature of the primary season, voters in Iowa, New Hampshire and other small states which traditionally hold their primaries and caucuses first in January usually have a major impact on the races.

Campaign activity, media attention, and voter participation are usually higher in these states, as the candidates attempt to build momentum and generate a bandwagon effect in these early primaries.

Conversely, voters in California and other large states which traditionally hold their primaries last in June usually end up having no say in who the presidential candidates will be.

The races are usually over by then, and thus the campaigns, the media, and voters have little incentive to participate in these late primaries.

As a result, more states vie for earlier primaries to claim a greater influence in the process. However, compressing the primary calendar in this way limits the ability of lesser-known candidates to effectively corral resources and raise their visibility among voters, especially when competing with better-known candidates who have more financial resources and the institutional backing of their party's establishment.

Primary and caucus reform proposals include a National Primary held on a single day; or the Interregional Primary Plan , where states would be grouped into six regions, and each of the regions would rotate every election on who would hold their primaries first.

With the primary races usually over before June, the political conventions have mostly become scripted, ceremonial affairs.

As the drama has left the conventions, and complaints grown that they were scripted and dull pep rallies, public interest and viewership has fallen off.

After having offered gavel-to-gavel coverage of the major party conventions in the midth century, the Big Three television networks now only devote approximately three hours of coverage one hour per night.

Critics also argue that the Electoral College is archaic and inherently undemocratic. With all states, except Maine and Nebraska, using a winner-take-all system, both the Democratic and the Republican candidates are almost certain to win all the electoral votes from those states whose residents predominantly vote for the Democratic Party or the Republican Party, respectively.

This encourages presidential candidates to focus exponentially more time, money, and energy campaigning in a few so-called " swing states ", states in which no single candidate or party has overwhelming support.

Such swing states like Ohio are inundated with campaign visits, saturation television advertising, get-out-the-vote efforts by party organizers, and debates.

Meanwhile, candidates and political parties have no incentive to mount nationwide campaign efforts, or work to increase voter turnout, in predominately Democratic Party "safe states" like California or predominately Republican Party "safe states" like Texas.

In practice, the winner-take-all system also both reinforces the country's two-party system and decreases the importance of third and minor political parties.

In theory, it is possible to secure the necessary electoral votes from only the eleven most populous states and then ignore the rest of the country.

In , Representative Samuel F. Vinton of Ohio proposed an amendment to the constitution that would replace the electoral college system with a lot system.

The Joint Resolution called for each state to elect, by a simple majority, a presidential candidate of said state. Each state would notify Congress of the presidential election results.

Congress would then inscribe the name of every state on uniform balls, equal to the number of said state's members of Congress, and deposit into a box.

In a joint session of Congress, a ball would be drawn, and the elected candidate of the state of which is written on the drawn ball would be named President.

A second ball would immediately be drawn after, and that state's candidate would be named Vice-President. The resolution did not pass the House.

Representative Vinton proposed an identical amendment in Again, it was unsuccessful. The driving force behind the introduction of the resolution is unclear, as there is no recorded debate for either proposal.

Other constitutional amendments, such as the Every Vote Counts Amendment , have been proposed seeking to replace the Electoral College with a direct popular vote, which proponents argue would increase turnout and participation.

Other proposed reforms include the National Popular Vote Interstate Compact , an interstate compact without Congressional authorization, whereby individual participating states agree to allocate their electors based on the winner of the national popular vote, instead of voting their respective statewide results.

Another proposal is for every state to simply adopt the District system used by Maine and Nebraska: The Automatic Plan would replace the Electors with an automatic tallying of votes to eliminate the faithless elector affecting the outcome of the election.

The Proportional Plan, often compared to the District Plan, would distribute electoral votes in each state in proportion to the popular vote, introducing third party effects in election outcomes.

The House Plan would require a constitutional amendment to allocate electors based on the House apportionment alone to lessen small state advantage.

Direct election plans and bonus plans have in common a higher valuation on the popular vote for president.

This is a table of electoral college results. Voter turnout in the and elections showed a noticeable increase over the turnout in and Prior to , voter turnout in presidential elections had been decreasing while voter registration, measured in terms of voting age population VAP by the U.

Census, has been increasing. The VAP figure, however, includes persons ineligible to vote — mainly non-citizens and ineligible felons — and excludes overseas eligible voters.

Opinion is mixed on whether this decline was due to voter apathy. Voter turnout from the and election was "not statistically different," based on the voting age population used by a November U.

Census survey of 50, households. Prior to , many presidential candidates disclosed assets, stock holdings, and other information which might affect the public trust.

Romney went a step further and released his tax returns for the previous twelve years. Thorndike and established of the nonprofit Tax Analysts group [83] — has compiled the publicly released tax returns of presidents and presidential candidates including primary candidates.

In , Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump broke with tradition, becoming the only major-party candidate since Gerald Ford in to not make any of his full tax returns public.

Nixon released his tax returns while being audited. Presidential elections are held on the same date as those for all the seats in the United States House of Representatives , the full terms for 33 or 34 of the seats in the United States Senate , the governorships in several U.

Presidential candidates tend to bring out supporters who then vote for their party's candidates for those other offices.

Voter turnout is also generally higher during presidential election years than either midterm election years [89] or odd-numbered election years.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the most recent election, see United States presidential election, For the upcoming election, see United States presidential election, List of Presidents of the United States.

Constitution of the United States Law Taxation. Presidential elections Midterm elections Off-year elections. Democratic Republican Third parties.

All other candidates together. The series of presidential primary elections and caucuses took place between February and June , staggered among the 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.

This nominating process was also an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of delegates to a political party's nominating convention , who in turn elected their party's presidential nominee.

Speculation about the campaign began almost immediately following the campaign, with New York magazine declaring the race had begun in an article published on November 8, two days after the election.

With seventeen major candidates entering the race, starting with Ted Cruz on March 23, , this was the largest presidential primary field for any political party in American history.

Despite leading many polls in Iowa, Trump came in second to Cruz, after which Huckabee, Paul and Santorum withdrew due to poor performances at the ballot box.

Following a sizable victory for Trump in the New Hampshire primary , Christie, Fiorina and Gilmore abandoned the race. On March 1, , the first of four " Super Tuesday " primaries, Rubio won his first contest in Minnesota, Cruz won Alaska, Oklahoma and his home of Texas and Trump won the other seven states that voted.

Failing to gain traction, Carson suspended his campaign a few days later. Rubio suspended his campaign after losing his home state. Between March 16 and May 3, , only three candidates remained in the race: Trump, Cruz and Kasich.

Cruz won the most delegates in four Western contests and in Wisconsin, keeping a credible path to denying Trump the nomination on first ballot with 1, delegates.

Trump then augmented his lead by scoring landslide victories in New York and five Northeastern states in April, followed by a decisive victory in Indiana on May 3, , securing all 57 of the state's delegates.

Without any further chances of forcing a contested convention , both Cruz [35] and Kasich [36] suspended their campaigns.

Trump remained the only active candidate and was declared the presumptive Republican nominee by Republican National Committee chairman Reince Priebus on the evening of May 3, A study found that media coverage of Trump led to increased public support for him during the primaries.

Major candidates were determined by the various media based on common consensus. The following were invited to sanctioned televised debates based on their poll ratings.

Trump received 14,, total votes in the primary. Trump, Cruz, Rubio and Kasich each won at least one primary, with Trump receiving the highest number of votes and Ted Cruz receiving the second highest.

Trump turned his attention towards selecting a running mate after he became the presumptive nominee on May 4, In July , it was reported that Trump had narrowed his list of possible running mates down to three: Christie, Gingrich, and Pence.

On July 14, , several major media outlets reported that Trump had selected Pence as his running mate. Trump confirmed these reports in a message on Twitter on July 15, , and formally made the announcement the following day in New York.

Senate and was the First Lady of the United States , became the first Democrat in the field to formally launch a major candidacy for the presidency with an announcement on April 12, , via a video message.

On October 20, , Webb announced his withdrawal from the Democratic primaries, and explored a potential Independent run.

On February 1, , in an extremely close contest, Clinton won the Iowa caucuses by a margin of 0. After winning no delegates in Iowa, O'Malley withdrew from the presidential race that day.

On March 8, despite never having a lead in the Michigan primary , Sanders won by a small margin of 1. Over the course of May, Sanders accomplished another surprise win in the Indiana primary [] and also won in West Virginia and Oregon , while Clinton won the Guam caucus and Kentucky primary.

On June 6, , the Associated Press and NBC News reported that Clinton had become the presumptive nominee after reaching the required number of delegates, including pledged delegates and superdelegates , to secure the nomination, becoming the first woman to ever clinch the presidential nomination of a major United States political party.

Clinton also won the final primary in the District of Columbia on June Although Sanders had not formally dropped out of the race, he announced on June 16, , that his main goal in the coming months would be to work with Clinton to defeat Trump in the general election.

The following candidates were frequently interviewed by major broadcast networks and cable news channels, or were listed in publicly published national polls.

Lessig was invited to one forum, but withdrew when rules were changed which prevented him from participating in officially sanctioned debates.

In April , the Clinton campaign began to compile a list of 15 to 20 individuals to vet for the position of running mate, even though Sanders continued to challenge Clinton in the Democratic primaries.

Third party and independent candidates that have obtained more than , votes nationally and one percent of the vote in at least one state, are listed separately.

New York gubernatorial campaign. Ballot access to electoral votes with write-in: Ballot access to 84 electoral votes with write-in: In some states, Evan McMullin's running mate was listed as Nathan Johnson on the ballot rather than Mindy Finn, although Nathan Johnson was intended to only be a placeholder until an actual running mate was chosen.

Peace and Freedom [] Liberty Union Party []. Natural Law Party []. West Virginia [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [] [].

Gary Johnson Libertarian Party campaign. Jill Stein Green Party campaign. Evan McMullin Independent campaign. Darrell Castle Constitution Party campaign.

Hillary Clinton focused her candidacy on several themes, including raising middle class incomes, expanding women's rights, instituting campaign finance reform, and improving the Affordable Care Act.

In March , she laid out a detailed economic plan basing her economic philosophy on inclusive capitalism , which proposed a "clawback" which would rescind tax relief and other benefits for companies that move jobs overseas; with provision of incentives for companies that share profits with employees, communities and the environment, rather than focusing on short-term profits to increase stock value and rewarding shareholders; as well as increasing collective bargaining rights; and placing an "exit tax" on companies that move their headquarters out of America in order to pay a lower tax rate overseas.

Donald Trump's campaign drew heavily on his personal image, enhanced by his previous media exposure. The red baseball cap with the slogan emblazoned on the front became a symbol of the campaign, and has been frequently donned by Trump and his supporters.

Moreover, he has insisted that Washington is "broken" and can only be fixed by an outsider. Clinton had an uneasy, and at times adversarial relationship with the press throughout her life in public service.

In contrast, Trump benefited from free media more than any other candidate. Both Clinton and Trump were seen unfavorably by the general public, and their controversial nature set the tone of the campaign.

Clinton's practice during her time as Secretary of State of using a private email address and server , in lieu of State Department servers, gained widespread public attention back in March Also, on September 9, , Clinton stated: They're racist, sexist, homophobic, xenophobic, Islamophobic—you name it.

On the other side, on October 7, , video and accompanying audio were released by The Washington Post in which Trump referred obscenely to women in a conversation with Billy Bush while they were preparing to film an episode of Access Hollywood.

The audio was met with a reaction of disbelief and disgust from the media. The ongoing controversy of the election made third parties attract voters' attention.

Johnson responded, "And what is Aleppo? On the other hand, Green Party candidate Jill Stein stated that the Democratic and Republican parties are "two corporate parties" that have converged into one.

Putting another Clinton in the White House will fan the flames of this right-wing extremism. In response to Johnson's growing poll numbers, the Hillary Clinton campaign and Democratic allies increased their criticism of Johnson in September , warning that "a vote for a third party is a vote for Donald Trump" and deploying Senator Bernie Sanders Clinton's former primary rival, who supported her in the general election to win over voters who might be considering voting for Johnson or for Stein.

This is an overview of the money used in the campaign as it is reported to Federal Election Commission FEC and released in September Trump, who has frequently criticized the mainstream media , was not endorsed by the vast majority of newspapers, [] [] with the Las Vegas Review-Journal , [] The Florida Times-Union , [] and the tabloid National Enquirer his highest profile supporters.

USA Today , which had not endorsed any candidate since it was founded in , broke tradition by giving an anti-endorsement against Trump, declaring him "unfit for the presidency".

Other traditionally Republican papers, including the New Hampshire Union Leader , which had endorsed the Republican nominee in every election for the last years, [] The Detroit News , which had not endorsed a non-Republican in its years, [] and the Chicago Tribune , [] endorsed Gary Johnson.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation agreed. Clapper in early January testified before a Senate committee that Russia's meddling in the presidential campaign went beyond hacking, and included disinformation and the dissemination of fake news , often promoted on social media.

President-elect Trump originally called the report fabricated, [] and Wikileaks denied any involvement by Russian authorities.

The Commission on Presidential Debates CPD , a non-profit organization, hosted debates between qualifying presidential and vice-presidential candidates.

According to the commission's website, to be eligible to opt to participate in the anticipated debates, "in addition to being Constitutionally eligible, candidates must appear on a sufficient number of state ballots to have a mathematical chance of winning a majority vote in the Electoral College, and have a level of support of at least 15 percent of the national electorate as determined by five selected national public opinion polling organizations, using the average of those organizations' most recently publicly-reported results at the time of the determination.

The three locations chosen to host the presidential debates, and the one location selected to host the vice presidential debate, were announced on September 23, The site of the first debate was originally designated as Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio ; however, due to rising costs and security concerns, the debate was moved to Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York.

On August 19, Kellyanne Conway , Trump's campaign manager confirmed that Trump would participate in a series of three debates.

The nominees of the Democratic , Republican , Libertarian , Green , Constitution , Reform , and Socialism and Liberation parties, as well as independent candidate Evan McMullin , were invited to participate.

The election was held on November 8, The news media and election experts were surprised twice: English political scientist Lloyd Gruber said, "One of the major casualties of the election season has been the reputation of political science, a discipline whose practitioners had largely dismissed Donald Trump's chances of gaining the Republican nomination.

Even Wisconsin , Pennsylvania , and Michigan , states that had been predicted to vote Democratic, were won by Trump. Math, calculations, candidate dislike causing voter abstention begat the numbers.

That map was bleeding red I always used to believe in [polls]. I don't believe them anymore. According to the authors of Shattered: Obama aide David Simas called Clinton campaign manager Robby Mook to persuade Clinton to concede the election, with no success.

Obama then called Clinton directly, citing the importance of continuity of government , to ask her to publicly acknowledge that Trump had won.

Believing that she was still unwilling to concede, the president then called Clinton campaign chair John Podesta , but the call to Clinton had likely already persuaded her.

On Wednesday morning at 2: Clinton called Trump early that morning to concede defeat, [] and at 2: Six states plus a portion of Maine that Obama won in switched to Trump Electoral College votes in parentheses: Florida 29 , Pennsylvania 20 , Ohio 18 , Michigan 16 , Wisconsin 10 , Iowa 6 , and Maine's second congressional district 1.

Initially, Trump won exactly more Electoral College votes than Mitt Romney had in , with two lost to faithless electors in the final tally. Thirty-nine states swung more Republican compared to the previous presidential election, while eleven states and the District of Columbia swung more Democratic.

Michael McDonald estimated that A FEC report of the election recorded an official total of Data scientist Azhar Hamdan noted the paradoxes of the outcome, saying that "chief among them [was] the discrepancy between the popular vote, which Hillary Clinton won by 2.

Dave Leip's Atlas of U. Retrieved February 4, For Bernie Sanders and John Kasich: Chris Suprun stated that he cast his presidential vote for John Kasich and his vice presidential vote for Carly Fiorina.

The other faithless elector in Texas, Bill Greene, cast his presidential vote for Ron Paul but cast his vice presidential vote for Mike Pence, as pledged.

The exact numbers of write-in votes for Sanders have been published for three states. In California, his official running mate was Tulsi Gabbard and in New Hampshire and Vermont there was not a running mate attached to Sanders.

The table below displays the official vote tallies by each state's Electoral College voting method. The source for the results of all states is the official Federal Election Commission report.

The column labeled "Margin" shows Trump's margin of victory over Clinton the margin is negative for every state the Clinton won.

A total of 29 third party and independent presidential candidates appeared on the ballot in at least one state. Should we give up on polling?

From the section US Election What you need to know. Who voted for Donald Trump? Five questions on the economy. Tycoon who became president.

World media digests poll upset 9 November Russia celebrates Trump win 9 November Canada reacts to a Trump presidency 9 November What went wrong for Hillary Clinton?

An astonishing new chapter in US history Donald Trump has written an astonishing new chapter in US history, confounding his critics and detractors.

Jon Sopel North America editor. Will President Trump be deal-maker or divider? Did Facebook turbo-boost Trump vote?

Perhaps the most extraordinary election in US history was a revolt against the political establishment. Donald Trump has written an astonishing new chapter in US history, confounding his critics and detractors.

Which Donald Trump will be president - the deal-maker or the divider? Facebook played a large role in the US election, but Mark Zuckerberg is not engaging with claims that it helped Donald Trump win.

The Democrats face a long and dark journey before they can once again emerge from the political wilderness. Mr Trump's election victory has left many Mexicans downcast, writes Katy Watson.

Top Stories How Donald Trump won. Which Trump will govern? Seven ways the world has changed under Trump Seven ways Donald Trump's presidency has changed the US and its relationship with the world.

What will President Trump do first? Where Trump stands on key issues From tax to health, to immigration to foreign policy, here is where US President Donald Trump stands on key issues.

World leaders react to Trump victory 9 November Michelle Obama in ? How Clinton won more votes and lost 15 November The red baseball cap with the slogan emblazoned on the front became a symbol of the campaign, and has been frequently donned by Trump and his supporters.

Moreover, he has insisted that Washington is "broken" and can only be fixed by an outsider. Clinton had an uneasy, and at times adversarial relationship with the press throughout her life in public service.

In contrast, Trump benefited from free media more than any other candidate. Both Clinton and Trump were seen unfavorably by the general public, and their controversial nature set the tone of the campaign.

Clinton's practice during her time as Secretary of State of using a private email address and server , in lieu of State Department servers, gained widespread public attention back in March Also, on September 9, , Clinton stated: They're racist, sexist, homophobic, xenophobic, Islamophobic—you name it.

On the other side, on October 7, , video and accompanying audio were released by The Washington Post in which Trump referred obscenely to women in a conversation with Billy Bush while they were preparing to film an episode of Access Hollywood.

The audio was met with a reaction of disbelief and disgust from the media. The ongoing controversy of the election made third parties attract voters' attention.

Johnson responded, "And what is Aleppo? On the other hand, Green Party candidate Jill Stein stated that the Democratic and Republican parties are "two corporate parties" that have converged into one.

Putting another Clinton in the White House will fan the flames of this right-wing extremism. In response to Johnson's growing poll numbers, the Hillary Clinton campaign and Democratic allies increased their criticism of Johnson in September , warning that "a vote for a third party is a vote for Donald Trump" and deploying Senator Bernie Sanders Clinton's former primary rival, who supported her in the general election to win over voters who might be considering voting for Johnson or for Stein.

This is an overview of the money used in the campaign as it is reported to Federal Election Commission FEC and released in September Trump, who has frequently criticized the mainstream media , was not endorsed by the vast majority of newspapers, [] [] with the Las Vegas Review-Journal , [] The Florida Times-Union , [] and the tabloid National Enquirer his highest profile supporters.

USA Today , which had not endorsed any candidate since it was founded in , broke tradition by giving an anti-endorsement against Trump, declaring him "unfit for the presidency".

Other traditionally Republican papers, including the New Hampshire Union Leader , which had endorsed the Republican nominee in every election for the last years, [] The Detroit News , which had not endorsed a non-Republican in its years, [] and the Chicago Tribune , [] endorsed Gary Johnson.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation agreed. Clapper in early January testified before a Senate committee that Russia's meddling in the presidential campaign went beyond hacking, and included disinformation and the dissemination of fake news , often promoted on social media.

President-elect Trump originally called the report fabricated, [] and Wikileaks denied any involvement by Russian authorities.

The Commission on Presidential Debates CPD , a non-profit organization, hosted debates between qualifying presidential and vice-presidential candidates.

According to the commission's website, to be eligible to opt to participate in the anticipated debates, "in addition to being Constitutionally eligible, candidates must appear on a sufficient number of state ballots to have a mathematical chance of winning a majority vote in the Electoral College, and have a level of support of at least 15 percent of the national electorate as determined by five selected national public opinion polling organizations, using the average of those organizations' most recently publicly-reported results at the time of the determination.

The three locations chosen to host the presidential debates, and the one location selected to host the vice presidential debate, were announced on September 23, The site of the first debate was originally designated as Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio ; however, due to rising costs and security concerns, the debate was moved to Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York.

On August 19, Kellyanne Conway , Trump's campaign manager confirmed that Trump would participate in a series of three debates.

The nominees of the Democratic , Republican , Libertarian , Green , Constitution , Reform , and Socialism and Liberation parties, as well as independent candidate Evan McMullin , were invited to participate.

The election was held on November 8, The news media and election experts were surprised twice: English political scientist Lloyd Gruber said, "One of the major casualties of the election season has been the reputation of political science, a discipline whose practitioners had largely dismissed Donald Trump's chances of gaining the Republican nomination.

Even Wisconsin , Pennsylvania , and Michigan , states that had been predicted to vote Democratic, were won by Trump. Math, calculations, candidate dislike causing voter abstention begat the numbers.

That map was bleeding red I always used to believe in [polls]. I don't believe them anymore. According to the authors of Shattered: Obama aide David Simas called Clinton campaign manager Robby Mook to persuade Clinton to concede the election, with no success.

Obama then called Clinton directly, citing the importance of continuity of government , to ask her to publicly acknowledge that Trump had won.

Believing that she was still unwilling to concede, the president then called Clinton campaign chair John Podesta , but the call to Clinton had likely already persuaded her.

On Wednesday morning at 2: Clinton called Trump early that morning to concede defeat, [] and at 2: Six states plus a portion of Maine that Obama won in switched to Trump Electoral College votes in parentheses: Florida 29 , Pennsylvania 20 , Ohio 18 , Michigan 16 , Wisconsin 10 , Iowa 6 , and Maine's second congressional district 1.

Initially, Trump won exactly more Electoral College votes than Mitt Romney had in , with two lost to faithless electors in the final tally. Thirty-nine states swung more Republican compared to the previous presidential election, while eleven states and the District of Columbia swung more Democratic.

Michael McDonald estimated that A FEC report of the election recorded an official total of Data scientist Azhar Hamdan noted the paradoxes of the outcome, saying that "chief among them [was] the discrepancy between the popular vote, which Hillary Clinton won by 2.

Dave Leip's Atlas of U. Retrieved February 4, For Bernie Sanders and John Kasich: Chris Suprun stated that he cast his presidential vote for John Kasich and his vice presidential vote for Carly Fiorina.

The other faithless elector in Texas, Bill Greene, cast his presidential vote for Ron Paul but cast his vice presidential vote for Mike Pence, as pledged.

The exact numbers of write-in votes for Sanders have been published for three states. In California, his official running mate was Tulsi Gabbard and in New Hampshire and Vermont there was not a running mate attached to Sanders.

The table below displays the official vote tallies by each state's Electoral College voting method. The source for the results of all states is the official Federal Election Commission report.

The column labeled "Margin" shows Trump's margin of victory over Clinton the margin is negative for every state the Clinton won. A total of 29 third party and independent presidential candidates appeared on the ballot in at least one state.

Independent candidate Evan McMullin , who appeared on the ballot in 11 states, received over , votes 0. Wisconsin went Republican for the first time since , while Pennsylvania and Michigan went Republican for the first time since The Clinton campaign pledged to participate in the Green Party recount efforts, while Trump backers challenged them in court.

The winner of the statewide vote gets two additional electoral votes. Red denotes states or congressional districts whose electoral votes are awarded separately won by Republican Donald Trump; blue denotes those won by Democrat Hillary Clinton.

Most media outlets announced the beginning of the presidential race about twenty months prior to Election Day. Soon after the first contestants declared their candidacy, Larry Sabato listed Virginia, Colorado, Iowa, New Hampshire, Florida, Nevada, and Ohio as the seven states most likely to be contested in the general election.

After Donald Trump clinched the Republican presidential nomination, many pundits felt that the major campaign locations might be different from what had originally been expected.

Rust Belt states such as Pennsylvania , Wisconsin , and even Michigan were thought to be in play with Trump as the nominee, while states with large minority populations, such as Colorado and Virginia , were expected to shift towards Clinton.

According to Politico [] and the online blog, his path to victory went through states such as Florida, North Carolina, Nevada, New Hampshire, and possibly Colorado.

Early polling indicated a closer-than-usual race in former Democratic strongholds such as Washington , Delaware , New Jersey , Connecticut , Maine for the two statewide electoral votes , and New Mexico.

Some reviews took this information as evidence of an expanded 'swing-state map'. A consensus among political pundits developed throughout the primary election season regarding swing states.

Trump's primary campaign was propelled by victories in Democratic states, and his supporters often did not identify as Republican.

For example, Utah was the reddest state in , although the Republican share was boosted significantly by the candidacy of Mormon candidate Mitt Romney.

Media reports indicated that both candidates planned to concentrate on Florida, Pennsylvania, Ohio and North Carolina.

These generally rate the race by the likelihood for each party to win a state. As the parameters of the race established themselves, analysts converged on a narrower list of contested states, which were relatively similar to those of recent elections.

Additionally, a district from each of Maine and Nebraska were considered to be coin flips. Clinton won states like New Mexico by less than 10 percentage points.

States won by Obama in the contest , such as Ohio 18 , Iowa 6 , and Maine's second district 1 , were also won by Trump. The close result in Maine was not expected by most commentators, nor were Trump's victory of over 10 points in the second district and their disparities.

After the conventions of the national parties, candidates from the main parties carried out trips to the states: Results by vote distribution among states.

The size of each state's pie chart is proportional to its number of electoral votes. Red denotes counties that went to Trump; blue denotes counties that went to Clinton.

Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote Red-Purple-Blue view. United States presidential election, cartogram.

The voter survey is based on exit polls completed by 24, voters leaving voting places throughout the United States on Election Day , in addition to 4, telephone interviews with early and absentee voters.

The election also represented the first time that Republicans performed better among lower-income whites than among affluent white voters.

Meanwhile, Trump increased his lead with non-Hispanic white voters through 1 percent over Mitt Romney's performance, and American Indians , Alaska Natives , and Pacific Islanders shifted their support towards the Republican candidate using the same relative amount.

However, "more convincing data" [] from the polling firm Latino Decisions indicates that Clinton received a higher share of the Hispanic vote, and Trump a lower share, than the Edison exit polls showed.

Various methods were used to forecast the outcome of the election. These models mostly showed a Democratic advantage since the nominees were confirmed, and were supported by pundits and statisticians, including Nate Silver of FiveThirtyEight, Nate Cohn at The New York Times , and Larry Sabato from the Crystal Ball newsletter, who predicted a Democratic victory in competitive presidential races and projected consistent leads in several battleground states around the country.

However, FiveThirtyEight's model pointed to the possibility of an Electoral College-popular vote split widening in the final weeks based on Trump's improvement in swing states like Florida or Pennsylvania.

This was due to the demographics targeted by Trump's campaign which lived in big numbers there, in addition to Clinton's poor performance in several of those swing states in comparison with Obama's performance in , as well as having a big number of her potential voters in very populated traditionally 'blue' states, but also in some very populated states traditionally 'red', like Texas, which were projected safe for Trump.

Early exit polls generally favored Clinton. Three states Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and Michigan which were considered to be part of Clinton's firewall , were won by Trump.

This result stands in contrast to the results , when President Obama won all but Indiana , which he carried in This table displays the final polling average published by Real Clear Politics on November 7, the actual electoral margin, and the over-performance by either candidate relative to the polls.

Many pollsters were puzzled by the failure of mainstream forecasting models to predict the outcome of the election. The sole exception was Maine's 2nd congressional district.

Trump's victory, considered unlikely by most forecasts, [] [] [] [] [] was characterized as an "upset" and as "shocking" by the media.

Following the announcement of Trump's election, large protests broke out across the United States with some continuing for several days.

Protesters have held up a number of different signs and chanted various shouts including "Not my president" and "We don't accept the president-elect".

High school and college students walked out of classes to protest. At some protests fires were lit, flags and other items were burned and people yelled derogatory remarks about Trump.

Rioters also broke glass at certain locations. After the election, computer scientists, including J. Alex Halderman , the director of the University of Michigan Center for Computer Security and Society, urged the Clinton campaign to request an election recount in Wisconsin, Michigan, and Pennsylvania three swing states where Trump had won narrowly for the purpose of excluding the possibility that the hacking of electronic voting machines had influenced the recorded outcome.

Donald Trump and New Hampshire governor Chris Sununu both complained that liberal voters from Massachusetts were illegally bused into New Hampshire for the election, and Scott Brown blamed the same phenomenon for losing his senate race in They found that in every case, field inspectors were able to determine that the voters were from New Hampshire, though they were riding a bus operated by an out-of-state company which has its name and address written on the outside of the bus, presumably the source of the confusion.

C linton triumphed in Virginia with Nowadays, one in five of its people are black or African American, part of an increasingly moderate population based in its urban areas.

This shifting of demographics meant that the state was expected to stay Democrat this time around, with polls showing Clinton eight points clear of Trump at the end of October.

Situated on the Atlantic coast, Virginia was the first colonial possession established in British America. North Carolina was highly coveted for both Trump and Clinton, with the candidates making multiple campaign stops there in the fortnight leading up to election day.

While Obama won it in with the assistance of demographic shifts and liberal urban areas, Romney managed to claim it for the Republicans in - the only swing state Obama lost in the last presidential election.

This southeastern state is the ninth most populous in America and has a lower white population, at 64 per cent, than the average state. All of these were essential battlegrounds that both candidates canvassed hard.

With most votes already counted Trump looks to have secured the votes of at least three in five voters in 10 states while Clinton can only boast the same vote share in five.

O ver six million people voted for third party candidates in this election - tripling the number since Exit polls showed how dissatisfied Americans were with both candidates, and this shows in the number of people who voted for a candidate that wasn't Trump or Clinton.

T he Senate and the House of Representatives, the two chambers that comprise America's legislature, also had elections. The Republicans held onto both of these chambers.

No victor was announced in Louisiana due to the state's rule that any victor must secure at least 50 per cent of the vote. The top two candidates from last week's vote will go head to head for the seat in a run-off next month.

A ll seats in the House were up for re-election and the Republicans also held on here with a slightly reduced majority.

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